Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

1. Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies


Nature of Business


Interpace Diagnostics Group, Inc. (the “Company”) is a fully integrated commercial and bioinformatics company that develops and provides clinically useful molecular diagnostic tests and pathology services. The Company develops and commercializes genomic tests and related first line assays principally focused on early detection of patients at high risk of cancer using the latest technology to help provide personalized medicine and improve patient diagnosis and management. The Company’s tests and services provide mutational analysis of genomic material contained in suspicious cysts, nodules and lesions with the goal of better informing treatment decisions in patients at risk of thyroid, pancreatic, and other cancers. The molecular diagnostic tests the Company offers enable healthcare providers to better assess cancer risk, helping to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment in patients at low risk. The Company currently has four commercialized molecular diagnostic tests in the marketplace for which it is receiving reimbursement: PancraGEN®, which is a pancreatic cyst and pancreaticobiliary solid lesion genomic test that helps physicians better assess risk of pancreaticobiliary cancers using its proprietary PathFinderTG® platform; ThyGeNEXT®, which is an expanded oncogenic mutation panel that helps identify malignant thyroid nodules and replaced ThyGenX®; ThyraMIR®, which assesses thyroid nodules for risk of malignancy utilizing a proprietary microRNA gene expression assay; and RespriDx®, which is a genomic test that helps physicians differentiate metastatic or recurrent lung cancer from the presence of newly formed primary lung cancer and which also utilizes the Company’s PathFinderTG® platform to compare the genomic fingerprint of two or more sites of lung cancer. The Company is also in the process of “soft launching” while it gathers additional market data, BarreGen®, an esophageal cancer risk classifier for Barrett’s Esophagus that also utilizes the Company’s PathFinderTG® platform.


Principles of Consolidation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Interpace Diagnostics Group, Inc., Interpace Diagnostics Corporation and Interpace Diagnostics, LLC.


Discontinued operations include the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries: Group DCA, LLC (“Group DCA”); InServe Support Solutions (Pharmakon); and TVG, Inc. (TVG, dissolved December 31, 2014) and its Commercial Services (“CSO”) business unit. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Effective December 31, 2015, the Company has one reporting segment: the Company’s molecular diagnostics business, after the divestiture of its CSO business on December 22, 2015, see Note 4, Discontinued Operations for further information. The Company’s current reporting segment structure is reflective of the way the Company’s management views the business, makes operating decisions and assesses performance. This structure allows investors to better understand Company performance, better assess prospects for future cash flows, and make more informed decisions about the Company.


Accounting Estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets and liabilities reported and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management’s estimates are based on historical experience, facts and circumstances available at the time, and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Significant estimates include accounting for valuation allowances related to deferred income taxes, contingent consideration, allowances for doubtful accounts and notes, revenue recognition, unrecognized tax benefits, and asset impairments involving other intangible assets. The Company periodically reviews these matters and reflects changes in estimates as appropriate. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


Cash and cash equivalents include unrestricted cash accounts, money market investments and highly liquid investment instruments with original maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase.


Accounts Receivable


The Company’s accounts receivables represent unconditional rights to consideration and are generated using its proprietary tests. The Company’s services are fulfilled upon completion of the test, review and release of the test results. In conjunction with fulfilling these services, the Company bills the third-party payer or direct-bill payer. Prior to the adoption of ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, the Company recognized accounts receivable related to billings for Medicare, Medicare Advantage, and direct-bill payers on an accrual basis, net of contractual adjustment, when collectability was reasonably assured. Under ASC 606 accounts receivable is now recognized for all payer groups, net of contractual adjustment and net of estimated uncollectable amounts. Contractual adjustments represent the difference between the list prices and the reimbursement rates set by third party payers, including Medicare, commercial payers, and amounts billed to direct-bill payers. Specific accounts may be written off after several appeals, which in some cases may take longer than twelve months.


Other current assets


Other current assets consisted of the following as of December 31, 2018 and 2017:


    December 31, 2018     December 31, 2017  
Indemnification assets   $ 875     $ 875  
Prepaid expenses     1,230       266  
Other     65       31  
Total other current assets   $ 2,170     $ 1,172  


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis, using the estimated useful lives of: seven to ten years for furniture and fixtures; two to five years for office and computer equipment; three to seven years for lab equipment; and leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated service lives or the terms of the related leases which are currently four to five years. Repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Upon disposition, the asset and related accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed from the related accounts and any gains or losses are reflected in operations.


Software Costs


Internal-Use Software - It is the Company’s policy to capitalize certain costs incurred in connection with developing or obtaining internal-use software. Capitalized software costs are included in property and equipment on the consolidated balance sheet and amortized over the software’s useful life, generally three to seven years. Software costs that do not meet capitalization criteria are expensed immediately.


External-Use Software - It is the Company’s policy to capitalize certain costs incurred in connection with developing or obtaining external-use software. Capitalized software costs are included in property and equipment on the consolidated balance sheet and amortized over the software’s useful life, generally three years. Software costs that do not meet capitalization criteria are expensed immediately.


See Note 6, Property and Equipment for further information.


Long-Lived Assets, including Finite-Lived Intangible Assets


Finite-lived intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization. Amortization of finite-lived acquired intangible assets is recognized on a straight-line basis, using the estimated useful lives of the assets of approximately two years to nine years in acquisition related amortization expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.


The Company reviews the recoverability of long-lived assets and finite-lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss is recognized by reducing the recorded value of the asset to its fair value measured by future discounted cash flows. This analysis requires estimates of the amount and timing of projected cash flows and, where applicable, judgments associated with, among other factors, the appropriate discount rate. Such estimates are critical in determining whether any impairment charge should be recorded and the amount of such charge if an impairment loss is deemed to be necessary.




In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to various contingencies. Contingencies are recorded in the consolidated financial statements when it is probable that a liability will be incurred and the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable, or otherwise disclosed, in accordance with ASC 450, Contingencies. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether a loss is reasonably estimable. In the event the Company determines that a loss is not probable, but is reasonably possible, and it becomes possible to develop what the Company believes to be a reasonable range of possible loss, then the Company will include disclosures related to such matter as appropriate and in compliance with ASC 450. To the extent there is a reasonable possibility that the losses could exceed the amounts already accrued, the Company will, when applicable, adjust the accrual in the period the determination is made, disclose an estimate of the additional loss or range of loss, indicate that the estimate is immaterial with respect to its financial statements as a whole or, if the amount of such adjustment cannot be reasonably estimated, disclose that an estimate cannot be made. The Company is not currently involved in any legal proceedings of a material nature and, accordingly, the Company has not accrued estimated costs related to any legal claims.


Revenue Recognition Prior to the Adoption of ASC 606


Historically, for the time periods through December 2017, the Company recognized revenue from services rendered when the following four revenue recognition criteria were met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; services have been rendered; the selling price is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company recognized revenue related to billings for Medicare, Medicare Advantage, and direct-bill payers on an accrual basis, net of contractual adjustment, when there was a predictable pattern of collectability. Contractual adjustments represent the difference between the list prices and the reimbursement rate set by Medicare and Medicare Advantage, or the amounts billed to direct-bill payers, which approximates the Medicare rate. For certain third-party payers that did not have established contractual reimbursement rates or a predictable pattern of collectability, including commercial insurance carriers and Medicaid, the Company believed that the fee was fixed or determinable and collectability was reasonably assured only upon request of third-party payer notification of payment or when cash is received, and recognized revenue at that time.


Until a contract had been negotiated with a commercial insurance carrier or governmental program, the services may or may not be covered by these entities’ existing reimbursement policies. In the absence of an agreement with the patient or other clearly enforceable legal right to demand payment, the related revenue was only recognized upon the earlier of payment notification or cash receipt. Accordingly, we recognized revenue from commercial insurance carriers, government programs, and certain direct-bill healthcare providers without contracts when payment was received.


Revenue Recognition after the Adoption of ASC 606


Beginning January 1, 2018 under ASC 606, the Company began to recognize revenue for billings less contractual allowances and estimated uncollectable amounts for all payer groups on the accrual basis based upon a thorough analysis of historical receipts (see Note 2, Recent Accounting Standards). The net amount derived and used for revenue recognition is referred to as the “net realizable value” or (“NRV”) for the particular test and payer group from which reimbursement is received. This derived NRV will be evaluated quarterly or as needed and then applied to future periods until recalculated.


The Company completed its analysis of the ASC 606 impact and incorporated further analysis of first quarter 2018 collections from its commercial payer base in finalizing its ASC 606 adjustments. The impact of recording the cumulative catch-up adjustment under the modified retrospective method was $2.5 million, recorded as an increase to opening retained earnings on January 1, 2018. Prior periods have not been retrospectively adjusted. The Company also finalized its analysis of modified internal controls over financial reporting and the disclosures required starting with Form 10-Q for the first quarter of 2018.


Cost of services


Cost of services consists primarily of the costs associated with operating our laboratories and other costs directly related to our tests. Personnel costs, which constitute the largest portion of cost of services, include all labor related costs, such as salaries, bonuses, fringe benefits and payroll taxes for laboratory personnel. Other direct costs include, but are not limited to, laboratory supplies, certain consulting expenses, royalty expenses, and facility expenses.


Stock-Based Compensation


The compensation cost associated with the granting of stock-based awards is based on the grant date fair value of the stock award. The Company recognizes the compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, over the shorter of the vesting period or the period from the grant date to the date when retirement eligibility is achieved. Forfeitures are initially estimated based on historical information and subsequently updated over the life of the awards to ultimately reflect actual forfeitures. As a result, changes in forfeiture activity can influence the amount of stock compensation cost recognized from period to period. The Company primarily uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and stock appreciation rights (“SARs”). The determination of the fair value of stock-based payment awards is made on the date of grant and is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions made regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These assumptions include: expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards; actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors; the risk-free interest rate; and expected dividend yield. The fair value of restricted stock units, or RSUs, and restricted shares is equal to the closing stock price on the date of grant.


See Note 13, Stock-Based Compensation for further information.


Treasury Stock


Treasury stock purchases are accounted for under the cost method whereby the entire cost of the acquired stock is recorded as treasury stock. Upon reissuance of shares, the Company records any difference between the weighted-average cost of such shares and any proceeds received as an adjustment to additional paid-in capital.


Rent Expense


Minimum rental expenses are recognized over the term of the lease. The Company recognizes minimum rent starting when possession of the property is taken from the landlord, which may include a construction period prior to occupancy. When a lease contains a predetermined fixed escalation of the minimum rent, the Company recognizes the related rent expense on a straight-line basis and records the difference between the recognized rental expense and the amounts payable under the lease as a deferred rent liability. The Company may also receive tenant allowances including cash or rent abatements, which are reflected in other accrued expenses and long-term liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet. These allowances are amortized as a reduction of rent expense over the term of the lease. Certain leases provide for contingent rents that are not measurable at inception. These contingent rents are primarily based upon use of utilities and the landlord’s operating expenses. These amounts are excluded from minimum rent and are included in the determination of total rent expense when it is probable that the expense has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable.


Income taxes


Income taxes are based on income for financial reporting purposes calculated using the Company’s expected annual effective rate and reflect a current tax liability or asset for the estimated taxes payable or recoverable on the current year tax return and expected annual changes in deferred taxes. Any interest or penalties on income tax are recognized as a component of income tax expense.


The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. This method requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for expected future tax consequences of temporary differences that currently exist between tax bases and financial reporting bases of the Company’s assets and liabilities based on enacted tax laws and rates. Deferred tax expense (benefit) is the result of changes in the deferred tax asset and liability. A valuation allowance is established, when necessary, to reduce the deferred income tax assets when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.


The Company operates in multiple tax jurisdictions and pays or provides for the payment of taxes in each jurisdiction where it conducts business and is subject to taxation. The breadth of the Company’s operations and the complexity of the tax law require assessments of uncertainties and judgments in estimating the ultimate taxes the Company will pay. The final taxes paid are dependent upon many factors, including negotiations with taxing authorities in various jurisdictions, outcomes of tax litigation and resolution of proposed assessments arising from federal and state audits. Uncertain tax positions are recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of more than fifty percent) that a position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return would be sustained upon examination by tax authorities that have full knowledge of all relevant information. A recognized tax position is then measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company adjusts accruals for unrecognized tax benefits as facts and circumstances change, such as the progress of a tax audit. However, any adjustments made may be material to the Company’s consolidated results of operations or cash flows for a reporting period. Penalties and interest, if incurred, would be recorded as a component of current income tax expense.


Significant judgment is also required in evaluating the need for and magnitude of appropriate valuation allowances against deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets are regularly reviewed for recoverability. The Company currently has significant deferred tax assets resulting from net operating loss carryforwards and deductible temporary differences, which should reduce taxable income in future periods, if generated. The realization of these assets is dependent on generating future taxable income.


Income (Loss) per Share


Basic earnings per common share are computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year including any unvested share-based payment awards that contain nonforfeitable rights to dividends. Diluted earnings per common share are computed by dividing net income by the sum of the weighted average number of shares outstanding and dilutive common shares under the treasury method. Unvested share-based payment awards that contain nonforfeitable rights to dividends or dividend equivalents (whether paid or unpaid), are participating securities and are included in the computation of earnings per share pursuant to the two-class method. As a result of the losses incurred in both 2018 and 2017, the potentially dilutive common shares have been excluded from the earnings per share computation for these periods because its inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.